This three components of attitude pdf is about attitude control in spacecraft. This article needs additional citations for verification. Attitude control is controlling the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity like the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc.
This article may need to be cleaned up. It has been merged from 3-axis stabilized spacecraft. A spacecraft’s attitude must typically be stabilized and controlled for a variety of reasons. Propulsion system thrusters are fired only occasionally to make desired changes in spin rate, or in the spin-stabilized attitude. If desired, the spinning may be stopped through the use of thrusters or by yo-yo de-spin. One method is to use small thrusters to continually nudge the spacecraft back and forth within a deadband of allowed attitude error. Another method for achieving three-axis stabilization is to use electrically powered reaction wheels, also called momentum wheels, which are mounted on three orthogonal axes aboard the spacecraft.
They provide a means to trade angular momentum back and forth between spacecraft and wheels. There are advantages and disadvantages to both spin stabilization and three-axis stabilization. Spin-stabilized craft provide a continuous sweeping motion that is desirable for fields and particles instruments, as well as some optical scanning instruments, but they may require complicated systems to de-spin antennas or optical instruments that must be pointed at targets for science observations or communications with Earth. Many spacecraft have components that require articulation. Voyager and Galileo, for example, were designed with scan platforms for pointing optical instruments at their targets largely independently of spacecraft orientation. See Wikipedia:Summary style for information on how to incorporate it into this article’s main text.
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You can help by adding to it. Many sensors generate outputs that reflect the rate of change in attitude. These require a known initial attitude, or external information to use them to determine attitude. Many of this class of sensor have some noise, leading to inaccuracies if not corrected by absolute attitude sensors. Gyroscopes are devices that sense rotation in three-dimensional space without reliance on the observation of external objects. Classically, a gyroscope consists of a spinning mass, but there are also “ring laser gyros” utilizing coherent light reflected around a closed path. Motion reference units are a kind of inertial measurement unit with single- or multi-axis motion sensors.
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