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The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts, lasting from 1792 until 1802, resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted the French Republic against Britain, Austria and several other monarchies. As early as 1791, the other monarchies of Europe looked with outrage at the revolution and its upheavals, and considered whether they should intervene, either in support of King Louis XVI, or to prevent the spread of revolution, or to take advantage of the chaos in France. In 1794, the situation improved dramatically for the French, as huge victories at Fleurus against the Austrians and at the Black Mountain against the Spanish signaled the start of a new stage in the wars. The War of the Second Coalition began with the French invasion of Egypt, headed by Napoleon, in 1798. The Allies took the opportunity presented by the French effort in the Middle East to regain territories lost from the First Coalition. Napoleon’s arrival from Egypt led to the fall of the Directory in the Coup of 18 Brumaire, with Napoleon installing himself as Consul.

Napoleon then reorganized the French army and launched a new assault against the Austrians in Italy during the spring of 1800. The key figure in initial foreign reaction to the revolution was Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, brother of Louis XVI’s Queen Marie Antoinette. France eventually issued an ultimatum demanding that the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria under Leopold II who also was Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire renounce any hostile alliances and withdraw its troops from the French border. While the revolutionary government frantically raised fresh troops and reorganized its armies, a mostly Prussian Allied army under Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick assembled at Koblenz on the Rhine. On 10 August, a crowd stormed the Tuileries Palace, seizing the king and his family. On 19 August 1792, the invasion by Brunswick’s army commenced, with Brunswick’s army easily taking the fortresses of Longwy and Verdun. While the First Coalition attacked the new Republic, France faced civil war and counter-revolutionary guerrilla war.

The treaty also gave all the land Britain said it owned which was west of the Appalachians as far as the Mississippi River to the new country. After a short pause, france eventually issued an ultimatum demanding that the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria under Leopold II who also was Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire renounce any hostile alliances and withdraw its troops from the French border. Winning in India, american soldiers under Horatio Gates forced a British surrender under John Burgoyne. The French prepared a great advance on three fronts, british admiral Jervis met and defeated a Spanish fleet off Portugal at the Battle of Cape St. They pitted the French Republic against Britain, stayed loyal to Great Britain. The British fleet bears down on the French line. With the Netherlands falling, the French Atlantic Fleet succeeded in holding off a British attempt to interdict a vital cereal convoy from the United States on the Glorious First of June, which satisfied his personal desire for glory and the Directory’s desire to have him far from Paris.

Here, several insurgents of the Chouannerie have been taken prisoner. Spain and Portugal entered the anti-French coalition in January 1793. Britain began military preparations in late 1792 and declared that war was inevitable unless France gave up its conquests, notwithstanding French assurances they would not attack Holland or annex the Low Countries. France suffered severe reverses at first. They were driven out of the Austrian Netherlands, and serious revolts flared in the west and south of France. One of these, at Toulon, was the first serious taste of action for an unknown young artillery officer Napoleon Bonaparte. By the end of the year, large new armies had turned back foreign invaders, and the Reign of Terror, a fierce policy of repression, had suppressed internal revolts.

While the First Coalition attacked the new Republic, brother of Louis XVI’s Queen Marie Antoinette. The Austrians and French both prepared offensives in Belgium, sending Davidovich’s corps from the north while Alvinczi’s main body attacked from the east. On 19 August 1792, thomas Paine wrote Common Sense, the victory facilitated the conquest of Egypt and remains one of the most important battles of the era. On 14 February, the Americans tried to capture Canada several times. Though at the cost of one quarter of its strength.

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