For books and television series with similar titles, see A History of Christianity. The lost history of christianity pdf Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity spread to all of Europe in the Middle Ages. Christianity expanded throughout the world and became the world’s largest religion due to European colonialism. Today there are more than two billion Christians worldwide.
For early New Testament history, see Ministry of Jesus and Canonical gospels. For history between the Old and New Testaments, see Intertestamental period. During its early history, Christianity grew from a 1st-century Jewish following to a religion that existed across the entire Greco-Roman world and beyond. The Apostolic Church was the community led by the apostles, and to some degree, Jesus’ relatives. The first Christians were essentially all ethnically Jewish or Jewish proselytes. In other words, Jesus preached to the Jewish people and called from them his first disciples, see for example Matthew 10.
The doctrines of the apostles brought the Early Church into conflict with some Jewish religious authorities. This eventually led to their expulsion from the synagogues, according to one theory of the Council of Jamnia. Antioch, as recorded in Acts 11:26. Christ Jesus, the Good Shepherd, 3rd century. The sources for the beliefs of the apostolic community include the Gospels and New Testament epistles.
Christian worship under Emperors Constantine the Great and Licinius. According to the New Testament, Christians were subject to various persecutions from the beginning. According to Church tradition, it was under Nero’s persecution that Peter and Paul were each martyred in Rome. Similarly, several of the New Testament writings mention persecutions and stress endurance through them. Early Christians suffered sporadic persecutions as the result of local pagan populations putting pressure on the imperial authorities to take action against the Christians in their midst, who were thought to bring misfortune by their refusal to honour the gods.
In spite of these sometimes intense persecutions, the Christian religion continued its spread throughout the Mediterranean Basin. Post-apostolic bishops of importance include Polycarp of Smyrna, Clement of Rome, and Ignatius of Antioch. These men reportedly knew and studied under the apostles personally and are therefore called Apostolic Fathers. The diversity of early Christianity can be documented from the New Testament record itself. The Book of Acts admits conflicts between Hebrews and Hellenists, and Jewish Christians and Gentile Christians, and Aramaic speakers and Greek speakers.
They produced two sorts of works: theological and “apologetic”, the latter being works aimed at defending the faith by using reason to refute arguments against the veracity of Christianity. Wall painting from the early catacombs, Rome, 4th century. Christian art only emerged relatively late, and the first known Christian images emerge from about 200 AD, though there is some literary evidence that small domestic images were used earlier. Although many Hellenised Jews seem, as at the Dura-Europos synagogue, to have had images of religious figures, the traditional Mosaic prohibition of “graven images” no doubt retained some effect, although never proclaimed by theologians. The development of doctrine, the position of orthodoxy, and the relationship between the various opinions is a matter of continuing academic debate. A folio from P46, an early-3rd-century collection of Pauline epistles.
The Biblical canon is the set of books Christians regard as divinely inspired and thus constituting the Christian Bible. The writings attributed to the apostles circulated amongst the earliest Christian communities. The Pauline epistles were circulating in collected form by the end of the 1st century AD. 160, who refers to it directly. In his Easter letter of 367, Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, gave the earliest preserved list of exactly the books that would become the New Testament canon. When these bishops and councils spoke on the matter, however, they were not defining something new, but instead “were ratifying what had already become the mind of the Church. Galerius, who had previously been one of the leading figures in persecution, in 311 issued an edict which ended the Diocletian persecution of Christianity.
The Emperor Constantine I was exposed to Christianity by his mother, Helena. How much Christianity Constantine adopted at this point is difficult to discern. The Roman coins minted up to eight years subsequent to the battle still bore the images of Roman gods. Nonetheless, the accession of Constantine was a turning point for the Christian Church.
Between 324 and 330, Constantine built, virtually from scratch, a new imperial capital that came to be named for him: Constantinople. It had overtly Christian architecture, contained churches within the city walls, and had no pagan temples. In accordance with a prevailing custom, Constantine was baptised on his deathbed. Constantine also played an active role in the leadership of the Church.