From a political viewpoint the history of the Shia was in several stages. The first part was the emergence of the Shia, which starts after Muhammad’s death in 632 and the cambridge history of islam pdf until Battle of Karbala in 680. Muhammad began preaching Islam at Mecca before migrating to Medina, from where he united the tribes of Arabia into a singular Arab Muslim religious polity. With Muhammad’s death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community.

The succession to Muhammad is an extremely contentious issue. Muslims ultimately divided into two branches based on their political attitude towards this issue, which forms the primary theological barrier between the two major divisions of Muslims: Sunni and Shi’a, with the latter following Ali as the successor to Muhammad. Shia Islam and Sunnism split in the aftermath of the death of Muhammad based on the politics of the early caliphs. Due to the Shi’a belief that Ali should have been the first caliph, the three caliphs that preceded him, Abu Bakr, Umar, and Usman, were considered illegitimate usurpers. Due to this, the number of hadith accepted by Shi’a is far less than the hadith accepted by Sunnis, with many of the non-accepted hadith being ones that had to deal with integral aspects of Islam, such as prayer and marriage. Welcome to the premier Islamic philosophy resource on the Web. We are dedicated to the study of the philosophical output of the Muslim world.

Islamic philosophy is also sometimes referred to as Arabic philosophy or Muslim philosophy. This site contains hundreds of full-length books and articles on Islamic philosophy, ranging from the classical texts in the canon of Islamic philosophy to modern works of Muslim philosophy. We are continually striving to improve this page. This current version is java free and makes minimal use of graphics. Should you have problem or issues with any of pages please do let us know. We hope you enjoy this site and make use of this project.

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Due to this, the Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle. In The Ikhwan al, gET INVOLVED:   Interested in working with us? Safa’ and their Rasa’il: An Introduction, soon to be replaced by a new article Inshallah! Misled and Misleading Yet Central in their Influence: Ibn Taymiyya’s Views on the Ikhwan al, une Nouvelle Oeuvre du Jeune Avicenne: Note complementaire a propos du ms.

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