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Postcolonial literature is the literature of countries that were colonised, mainly by European countries. It exists on all continents except Antarctica. Migrant literature and postcolonial literature show some considerable overlap. However, not all migration takes place in a colonial setting, and not all postcolonial literature deals with migration. A question of current debate is the extent to which postcolonial theory also speaks to migration literature in non-colonial settings. Post-colonial literary theory re-examines colonial literature, especially concentrating upon the social discourse, between the colonizer and the colonized, that shaped and produced the literature.

This depicts the colonised people in a more human light but risks absolving colonisers of responsibility for addressing the effects of colonisation by assuming that native inhabitants were “doomed” to their fate. Mary Pratt, however, proposes a completely different theorization of “anti-conquest” than the ideas discussed here, that can be traced to Edward Said. Instead of referring to how natives resist colonization or are victims of it, Pratt analyzes European literatures in which a European narrates their adventures and struggles to survive in the land of the non-European Other. Prior to the 20th century, leaders such as Prince Hall, Martin Delany, Edward Wilmot Blyden, and Henry Highland Garnet advocated the involvement of the African diaspora in African affairs. Postcolonial feminism is a form of feminism that developed as a response to the fact that feminism seemed to focus solely on the experiences of women in Western cultures.

Witi Ihimaera, from New Zealand, the first published Māori novelist. The Pacific Islands comprise 20,000 to 30,000 islands in the Pacific Ocean. At the point of the first colonization, Indigenous Australians had not developed a system of writing, so the first literary accounts of aborigines come from the journals of early European explorers, which contain descriptions of first contact, both violent and friendly. The voices of Indigenous Australians are being increasingly noticed and include the playwright Jack Davis and Kevin Gilbert. 2000 for Benang and again in 2011 for That Deadman Dance. Many notable works have been written by non-indigenous Australians on aboriginal themes.

The Timeless Land trilogy of novels about European settlement and exploration of Australia. Southern Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, published her first novel The Grass is Singing in 1950, after immigrating to England. She initially wrote about her African experiences. Things Fall Apart in the late 1950s. Achebe wrote his novels in English and defended the use of English, a “language of colonisers”, in African literature.

1986 Nobel Prize in Literature, the first African to be honored in that category. Soyinka has been a strong critic of successive Nigerian governments, especially the country’s many military dictators, as well as other political tyrannies, including the Mugabe regime in Zimbabwe. Much of his writing has been concerned with “the oppressive boot and the irrelevance of the colour of the foot that wears it”. South Africa when the end of apartheid has raised challenging questions as to what it is to be a South African, what it is to live in a new South Africa, whether South Africa is a nation, and, if so, what its mythos is, what requires to be forgotten and what remembered as we scour the past in order to understand the present and seek a path forward into an unknown future. Olivier argues that “There is no obvious reason why it should be unhealthy or abnormal for different literatures to co-exist in one country, each possessing its own infrastructure and allowing theoreticians to develop impressive theories about polysystems”.

The first texts produced by black authors were often inspired by missionaries and frequently deal with African history, in particular the history of kings such as Chaka. Modern South African writing in the African languages tends to play at writing realistically, at providing a mirror to society, and depicts the conflicts between rural and urban settings, between traditional and modern norms, racial conflicts and most recently, the problem of AIDS. In the first half of the 20th century, epics largely dominated black writing: historical novels, such as Sol T. The following are notable white South African writers in English: Athol Fugard, Nadine Gordimer, J. Caribbean island of Dominica, though she was mainly resident in England from the age of 16. The term “West Indies” first began to achieve wide currency in the 1950s, when writers such as Samuel Selvon, John Hearne, Edgar Mittelholzer, V. Many—perhaps most—West Indian writers have found it necessary to leave their home territories and base themselves in the United Kingdom, the United States, or Canada in order to make a living from their work—in some cases spending the greater parts of their careers away from the territories of their birth.

West Indian literature ranges over subjects and themes as wide as those of any other “national” literature, but in general many West Indian writers share a special concern with questions of identity, ethnicity, and language that rise out of the Caribbean historical experience. One unique and pervasive characteristic of Caribbean literature is the use of “dialect” forms of the national language, often termed creole. Trinidadian novelist, journalist, playwright, and short story writer. American David Henry Hwang’s play M. Butterfly addresses the Western perspective on China and the French as well as the American perspectives on Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Chinese American author who has written three novels and several works of non-fiction about the experiences of Chinese immigrants living in the United States. Bharati Mukherjee although of East Indian ancestry has gone on record that she considers herself an American writer, and not an Indian expatriate writer.

Throughout American history, African Americans have been discriminated against and subject to racist attitudes. This experience inspired some Black writers, at least during the early years of African-American literature, to prove they were the equals of European-American authors. By refuting the claims of the dominant culture, African-American writers were also attempting to subvert the literary and power traditions of the United States. Some scholars assert that writing has traditionally been seen as “something defined by the dominant culture as a white male activity. Puerto Rican writer, who is credited with writing the first Spanglish novel Yo-Yo Boing!

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