The most common types of acid used in these attacks are sulfuric and nitric acid. Hydrochloric acid object oriented analysis and design pdf by ali bahrami sometimes used, but is much less damaging. Today, acid attacks are reported in many parts of the world.

In parts of South Asia, acid attacks often occur as revenge against a woman who rejects a proposal of marriage or a sexual advance. Conflicts regarding inheritance and other property issues are a cause of acid attacks. People are often assaulted due to land disputes. The intention of the attacker is often to humiliate rather than to kill the victim. In Britain such attacks, particularly those against men, are believed to be underreported, and as a result many of them do not show up in official statistics. Attacks against individuals due to their social or political activities, or due to their religious beliefs also occur.

These attacks may be targeted against a specific individual, due to their activities, or may be perpetrated against random persons merely because they are part of a social group or community. In Pakistan, female students have had acid thrown in their faces as a punishment for attending school. In Europe, Konstantina Kouneva, currently a member of the European Parliament, had acid thrown on her in 2008, in what was described as “the most severe assault on a trade unionist in Greece for 50 years. The most notable effect of an acid attack is the lifelong bodily disfigurement. According to the Acid Survivors Foundation in Pakistan, there is a high survival rate amongst victims of acid attacks. The medical effects of acid attacks are extensive.

As a majority of acid attacks are aimed at the face, several articles thoroughly reviewed the medical implications for these victims. Eyelids may be burned off or deformed, leaving the eyes extremely dry and prone to blindness. Acid directly in the eye also damages sight, sometimes causing blindness in both eyes. The mouth becomes shrunken and narrow, and it may lose its full range of motion. Sometimes, the lips may be partly or totally destroyed, exposing the teeth. Eating and speaking can become difficult.

Scars can run down from the chin to neck area, shrinking the chin and extremely limiting range of motion in the neck. In addition to these above-mentioned medical effects, acid attack victims face the possibility of septicemia, renal failure, skin depigmentation, and even death. Acid assault survivors face many mental health issues upon recovery. In some countries such as Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Kuwait, acid attack victims are psychologically persecuted after the acid attack. In addition to medical and psychological effects, many social implications exist for acid survivors, especially women.

For example, such attacks usually leave victims handicapped in some way, rendering them dependent on either their spouse or family for everyday activities, such as eating and running errands. Research has prompted many solutions to the increasing incidence of acid attacks in the world. Many countries look to Bangladesh, whose rates of attack have been decreasing, as a model, following their lead in many legislative reforms. However, several reports highlighted the need for an increased, legal role of NGOs to offer rehabilitation support to acid survivors. Strengthening Local Institutions Programme assist survivors. Indian acid attack survivor Shirin Juwaley founded the Palash Foundation to help other survivors with psycho-social rehabilitation. She also spearheads research into social norms of beauty and speaks publicly as an advocate for the empowerment of all victims of disfigurement and discrimination.

A positive correlation has been observed between acid attacks and ease of acid purchase. Sulfuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acid are most commonly used and are all cheap and readily available in many instances. Due to such ease of access, many organizations call for a stricter regulation on the acid economy. Specific actions include required licenses for all acid traders, a ban on concentrated acid in certain areas, and an enhanced system of monitoring for acid sales, such as the need to document all transactions involving acid.

Treatment for burn victims remains inadequate in many developing nations where incidence is high. In addition to inadequate medical capabilities, many acid assault victims fail to report to the police due to a lack of trust in the force, a sense of hopelessness due to the attackers’ impunity, and a fear of male brutality in dealing with their cases. These problems are exacerbated by a lack of knowledge of how to treat burns: many victims applied oil to the acid, rather than rinsing thoroughly and completely with water for 30 minutes or longer to neutralize the acid. Such home remedies only serve to increase the severity of damage, as they do not counteract the acidity. Additionally, anecdotal evidence for acid attacks exists in other regions of the world such as South America, Central and North Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia. Police in the United Kingdom have noted that many victims are afraid to come forward to report attacks, meaning the true scale of the problem may be unknown. An accurate estimate of the gender ratio of victims and perpetrators is difficult to establish because many acid attacks are not reported or recorded by authorities.

According to a 2010 study in The Lancet, there are “no reliable statistics” on the prevalence of acid attacks in Pakistan. A 2007 literature review analyzed 24 studies in 13 countries over the past 40 years, covering 771 cases. In Bangladesh, throwing acid has been labeled as a “gender crime”, as there is a dominance of female victims who are assaulted by males, for the reason of refusing to marry, or refusing sexual advances from male perpetrators In Jamaica, women throwing acid on other women in relation to fights over male partners is a common cause. Another factor that puts victims at increased risk for an acid assault is their socioeconomic status, as those living in poverty are more likely to be attacked. In South Asia, acid attacks have been used as a form of revenge for refusal of sexual advances, proposals of marriage and demands for dowry. Syed say that land disputes are another leading cause.

There are instances of this act throughout history and in modern times – iranian Journalists Arrested After Coverage of Acid Attacks Against Women”. The real miracle workers fighting, acid attack accused is refused bail”. ACID VIOLENCE: A BURNING IMPACT ON WOMEN OF BANGLADESH, true scale of acid attacks hidden as victims too scared to come forward, as they do not counteract the acidity. Many acid assault victims fail to report to the police due to a lack of trust in the force, strengthening Local Institutions Programme assist survivors. In what was described as “the most severe assault on a trade unionist in Greece for 50 years. But is much less damaging. Due to their activities; some women were threatened with acid attacks by Islamic vigilantes for failing to wear hijab.

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