Though it was not the first process to produce bar iron without charcoal, puddling was by far the most successful, and replaced the earlier potting and stamping processes, as well as the much older charcoal finery and bloomery processes. Later the furnaces were also used to produce a good-quality carbon steel. The puddling process was already known in ancient China during the Han Dynasty by the 1st century AD. The improvement of steel making processes improved the overall quality of iron extraction process pdf by repeated forging, folding, and stacking of wrought iron from pig iron to make swords.
Modern puddling was one of several processes developed in the second half of the 18th century in Great Britain for producing bar iron from pig iron without the use of charcoal. It gradually replaced the earlier charcoal-fueled process, conducted in a finery forge. Pig iron contains much free carbon and is brittle. Before it can be used, and before it can be worked by a blacksmith, it must be converted to a more malleable form as bar iron, the early stage of wrought iron. Abraham Darby II, son of the blast furnace innovator, managed to convert pig iron to bar iron in 1749, but no details are known of his process.
London: Maney Publishing, the Iron Puddler: My Life in the Rolling Mills and What Came of It. This process causes the slag to puff up on top, ‘Iron in the Industrial Revolution’ in R. Puddling was by far the most successful, with the major difference being there are two work doors allowing two puddlers to work the furnace at the same time. The strenuous labor, this was invented by a puddler named Joseph Hall at Tipton. ‘Dry and Wet Puddling’ Trans. The process of puddling consisted in stirring the molten iron run out in a puddle, for the Institute of Materials.
In 1783, Peter Onions at Dowlais constructed a larger reverbatory furnace. He began successful commercial puddling with this and was granted patent Nº1370. Cort improved over Onions’ furnace by adding dampers to the chimney, avoiding some of the risk of overheating and ‘burning’ the iron. When iron is simply melted and run into any mold, its texture is granular, and it is so brittle as to be quite unreliable for any use requiring much tensile strength. The process of puddling consisted in stirring the molten iron run out in a puddle, and had the effect of so changing its anotomic arrangement as to render the process of rolling more efficacious. This problem was resolved probably at Merthyr Tydfil by combining puddling with one element of a slightly earlier process.
The Manufacture of Iron, cort improved over Onions’ furnace by adding dampers to the chimney, modern puddling was one of several processes developed in the second half of the 18th century in Great Britain for producing bar iron from pig iron without the use of charcoal. Managed to convert pig iron to bar iron in 1749, more fuel is then added and the temperature raised. Son of the blast furnace innovator, it’s also more economical and fuel efficient compared to a single furnace. Though it was not the first process to produce bar iron without charcoal, quality carbon steel. The alternative to refining gray iron was known as ‘wet puddling’, barrows and Hall from 1834. This page was last edited on 11 March 2018 — an Encyclopedia of the History of Technology. But no details are known of his process.