Type or paste a DOI name into the text box. A picture of a lightbulb is investment theory of creativity pdf to someone having an idea, a sign of creativity. Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed. The lexeme in the English word creativity comes from the Latin term creō “to create, make”: its derivational suffixes also come from Latin.

Robert Sternberg’s words, the production of “something original and worthwhile”. Greek philosophers like Plato rejected the concept of creativity, preferring to see art as a form of discovery. Asked in The Republic, “Will we say, of a painter, that he makes something? Plato answers, “Certainly not, he merely imitates.

It is commonly argued that the notion of “creativity” originated in Western culture through Christianity, as a matter of divine inspiration. The rejection of creativity in favor of discovery and the belief that individual creation was a conduit of the divine would dominate the West probably until the Renaissance and even later. However, this shift was gradual and would not become immediately apparent until the Enlightenment. As a direct and independent topic of study, creativity effectively received no attention until the 19th century. Runco and Albert argue that creativity as the subject of proper study began seriously to emerge in the late 19th century with the increased interest in individual differences inspired by the arrival of Darwinism. The insights of Poincaré and von Helmholtz were built on in early accounts of the creative process by pioneering theorists such as Graham Wallas and Max Wertheimer. Wallas considered creativity to be a legacy of the evolutionary process, which allowed humans to quickly adapt to rapidly changing environments.

Simonton provides an updated perspective on this view in his book, Origins of genius: Darwinian perspectives on creativity. In 1927, Alfred North Whitehead gave the Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh, later published as Process and Reality. The formal psychometric measurement of creativity, from the standpoint of orthodox psychological literature, is usually considered to have begun with J. The contrast of terms “Big C” and “Little c” has been widely used. Big-C model to review major theories of creativity. Robinson and Anna Craft have focused on creativity in a general population, particularly with respect to education. Craft makes a similar distinction between “high” and “little c” creativity.

There has been much empirical study in psychology and cognitive science of the processes through which creativity occurs. Interpretation of the results of these studies has led to several possible explanations of the sources and methods of creativity. Incubation is a temporary break from creative problem solving that can result in insight. There has been some empirical research looking at whether, as the concept of “incubation” in Wallas’ model implies, a period of interruption or rest from a problem may aid creative problem-solving. Geneplore” model, in which creativity takes place in two phases: a generative phase, where an individual constructs mental representations called preinventive structures, and an exploratory phase where those structures are used to come up with creative ideas.

Some evidence shows that when people use their imagination to develop new ideas, those ideas are heavily structured in predictable ways by the properties of existing categories and concepts. A computational implementation of the theory was developed based on the CLARION cognitive architecture and used to simulate relevant human data. This work represents an initial step in the development of process-based theories of creativity encompassing incubation, insight, and various other related phenomena. In The Act of Creation, Arthur Koestler introduced the concept of bisociation — that creativity arises as a result of the intersection of two quite different frames of reference. This idea was later developed into conceptual blending. Honing theory, developed principally by psychologist Liane Gabora, posits that creativity arises due to the self-organizing, self-mending nature of a worldview.

A central feature of honing theory is the notion of a potentiality state. Honing theory is held to explain certain phenomena not dealt with by other theories of creativity, for example, how different works by the same creator are observed in studies to exhibit a recognizable style or ‘voice’ even through in different creative outlets. In everyday thought, people often spontaneously imagine alternatives to reality when they think “if only”. Their counterfactual thinking is viewed as an example of everyday creative processes. Plot Titles, where participants are given the plot of a story and asked to write original titles. Quick Responses is a word-association test scored for uncommonness. Unusual Uses is finding unusual uses for common everyday objects such as bricks.

Building on Guilford’s work, Torrance developed the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking in 1966. The total number of interpretable, meaningful, and relevant ideas generated in response to the stimulus. The statistical rarity of the responses among the test subjects. The amount of detail in the responses. The Creativity Achievement Questionnaire, a self-report test that measures creative achievement across 10 domains, was described in 2005 and shown to be reliable and valid when compared to other measures of creativity and to independent evaluation of creative output.

Considerable progress has been made in automated scoring of divergent thinking tests using semantic approach. Semantic networks were also used to devise originality scores that yielded significant correlations with socio-personal measures. Most recently, an NSF-funded team of researchers led by James C. Some researchers have taken a social-personality approach to the measurement of creativity.

In these studies, personality traits such as independence of judgement, self-confidence, attraction to complexity, aesthetic orientation, and risk-taking are used as measures of the creativity of individuals. Intelligence is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for creativity. Creativity is not intrinsically related to intelligence. Displays of creativity are moderated by intelligence. Extremely high intelligence might interfere with creative ability. A number of researchers include creativity, either explicitly or implicitly, as a key component of intelligence. To demonstrate this, Gardner cited examples of different famous creators, each of whom differed in their types of intelligences e.

Carroll theory includes creativity as a subset of intelligence. Type 1 is a conscious process, and concerns goal directed thoughts, which are explained by g. Type 2 is an unconscious process, and concerns spontaneous cognition, which encompasses daydreaming and implicit learning ability. In this relationship model, intelligence is a key component in the development of creativity.

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