Appropriate technology has been used to address issues in a wide range of fields. History of technology, the development intermediate accounting 1 pdf time of systematic techniques for making and doing things.
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The term technology, a combination of the Greek technē, “art, craft”, with logos, “word, speech”, meant in Greece a discourse on the arts, both fine and applied. A highly compressed account of the history of technology such as this one must adopt a rigorous methodological pattern if it is to do justice to the subject without grossly distorting it one way or another. The plan followed in the present article is primarily chronological, tracing the development of technology through phases that succeed each other in time. Obviously, the division between phases is to a large extent arbitrary. Indian ideological leader Mahatma Gandhi is often cited as the “father” of the appropriate technology movement. Though the concept had not been given a name, Gandhi advocated for small, local and predominantly village-based technology to help India’s villages become self-reliant.
China also implemented policies similar to appropriate technology during the reign of Mao Zedong and the following Cultural Revolution. During the Cultural Revolution, development policies based on the idea of “walking on two legs” advocated the development of both large-scale factories and small-scale village industries. Ernst Friedrich “Fritz” Schumacher is credited as the founder of the appropriate technology movement. Schumacher first articulated the idea of “intermediate technology,” now known as appropriate technology, in a 1962 report to the Indian Planning Commission in which he described India as long in labor and short in capital, calling for an “intermediate industrial technology” that harnessed India’s labor surplus.
Initially, Schumacher’s ideas were rejected by both the Indian government and leading development economists. Between 1966 and 1975 the number of new appropriate technology organizations founded each year was three times greater than the previous nine years. There was also an increase in organizations focusing on applying appropriate technology to the problems of industrialized nations, particularly issues related to energy and the environment. Appropriate technology was also increasingly applied in developed countries. 1977 with an initial appropriation of 3 million dollars from the U.
In more recent years, the appropriate technology movement has continued to decline in prominence. Recently, a study looked at the continued barriers to AT deployment despite the relatively low cost of transferring information in the internet age. A more free market-centric view has also begun to dominate the field. Polak argues the “design for the other 90 percent” movement has replaced appropriate technology. Growing out of the appropriate technology movement, designing for the other 90 percent advocates the creation of low-cost solutions for the 5.