You seem to have javascript disabled. Please note that many of the page functionalities won’t work as expected without javascript enabled. These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: The world is facing a number hydrology and irrigation engineering notes pdf serious problems of which population rise, climate change, soil degradation, water scarcity and food security are among the most important.

Aquaponics, as a closed loop system consisting of hydroponics and aquaculture elements, could contribute to addressing these problems. It is a soil-free down-sized natural process that can be found in lakes, ponds and rivers. Using fish waste as fertilizer for crops is an ancient practice. South-East Asia about 1500 years ago .

A survey, conducted by Love et al. Its role for food security would be particularly relevant because the global population now exceeds 7. 2 billion and is growing rapidly. It is expected to reach 9. Urban population growth will require an increasing demand for animal protein .

The interlinking of aquacultural and hydroponic procedures allows some of the shortcomings of the respective systems to be addressed, and this represents a promising sustainable food production method. Aquaponics can be considered a sustainable agricultural production system regarding the definition of Lehman et al. Mineral transfers from aquaculture to hydroponics support efficient nutrient recycling, while water recirculation reduces the water use . Also, in no-recirculating systems, intermittent disposal of the considerable amounts of nutrient rich water leads to high water consumption as well as surface and groundwater pollution .

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