Cross-cultural psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes, including both their variability and invariance, under diverse cultural conditions. Through expanding research methodologies to recognize cultural variance in behavior, language, and meaning it seeks to extend and develop psychology. While cross-cultural psychology represented only a minor area of psychology prior to WWII, it handbook of psychophysiology pdf to grow in importance during the 1960s. Cross-cultural psychology is differentiated from cultural psychology, which refers to the branch of psychology that holds that human behavior is strongly influenced by cultural differences, meaning that psychological phenomena can only be compared with each other across cultures to a limited extent.
In contrast, cross-cultural psychology includes a search for possible universals in behavior and mental processes. Two definitions of the field include: “the scientific study of human behavior and its transmission, taking into account the ways in which behaviors are shaped and influenced by social and cultural forces” and “the empirical study of members of various cultural groups who have had different experiences that lead to predictable and significant differences in behavior”. Early work in cross-cultural psychology was suggested in Lazarus and Steinthal’s journal Zeitschrift für Völkerpsychologie und Sprachwissenschaft , which began to be published in 1860. More empirically oriented research was subsequently conducted by Williams H.
Torres Straits area, located between Australia and New Guinea. The Dutch psychologist Geert Hofstede revolutionized the field doing worldwide research on values for IBM in the 1970s. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory is not only the springboard for one of the most active research traditions in cross-cultural psychology, but is also cited extensively in the management literature. Hofstede, proposing alternative measures to assess individualism and collectivism. Can the traits defined by American psychologists be generalized across people from different countries? In response to this questions, cross-cultural psychologists have often questioned how to compare traits across cultures. To examine this question, lexical studies measuring personality factors using trait adjectives from various languages have been conducted.
Researchers have often wondered whether people across various cultures interpret emotions in similar ways. In the field of cross-cultural psychology, Paul Ekman has conducted research examining judgments in facial expression cross-culturally. While there are said to be universally recognized facial expressions, Yueqin Huang and his colleagues performed research that looked at how a culture may apply different labels to certain expressions of emotions. Chinese versus American perceptions of facial emotion expressions. Specifically, the paper examines aging-related differences in wise reasoning among the American and Japanese cultures.
Differences in conflict resolution across cultures can also be seen with the inclusion of a third party. These differences can be found when a third party becomes involved and provides a solution to the conflict. Asian and American cultural practices play a role in the way the members of the two cultures handle conflict. The authors found both universal similarities as well as differences between and within more than 30 nations.
Effect of perceived controllability and performance standards on self, bandura applied his human agentic view via social cognitive theory for the personal and social aspects of control over moral values and conduct. The rise of cross – yueqin Huang and his colleagues performed research that looked at how a culture may apply different labels to certain expressions of emotions. He published Social Learning Theory, elects in the history of the APA at the age of 48. Including summaries of journal articles and research trends. To act humanely and to act inhumanely. In 1986 he published Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory, chinese versus American perceptions of facial emotion expressions.
The Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology also contains a fine review on the topic of Sex, Gender, and Culture. This topic represents a specialized area of cross-cultural psychology and can be viewed as the study of cultural similarities and differences in developmental processes and their outcomes as expressed by behavior and mental processes in individuals and groups. The rise of cross-cultural psychology reflects a general process of globalization in the social sciences that seeks to purify specific areas of research which have western biases. Vijver, Fons van de, and Kwok Leung. Methods and Data Analysis for Cross-Cultural Research. On the growth and continuing importance of cross-cultural psychology. Thorndike, 1973 as cited in Berry, J.
Etic Plus Emic Versus Pseudoetic: A Test of a Basic Assumption of Contemporary Cross-Cultural Psychology”. Chinese values and the search for culture-free dimensions of culture. What makes us different and similar: A new interpretation of the World Values Survey and other cross-cultural data. Sofia, Bulgaria: Klasika y Stil Publishing House. Hofstede, Geert, Hofstede, Gert Jan, and Minkov, Michael. Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method, and applications.