Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by Influenza viruses. Temporary muscle pains or feelings of tiredness may occur as well. Flu vaccine 2017 pdf against influenza began in the 1930s with large scale availability in the United States beginning in 1945. The flu vaccine can also reduce the severity of the flu if a person contracts a flu strain that the vaccine did not contain.
Trials of both live and inactivated influenza vaccines against seasonal influenza have been summarized in several 2012 meta-analyses. Studies on live vaccines have very limited data, but these preparations may be more effective than inactivated vaccines. The CDC recommend that everyone except infants under the age of six months should receive the seasonal influenza vaccine. As the death rate is also high among infants who catch influenza, the household contacts and caregivers of infants should be vaccinated to reduce the risk of passing an influenza infection to the infant. In children, vaccines again showed high efficacy, but low effectiveness in preventing “flu-like illness”. In children under the age of two, the data are extremely limited, but vaccination appeared to confer no measurable benefit. Vaccination decreased confirmed cases of influenza from about 2.
No effect on hospitalization was found. In working adults a review by the Cochrane Collaboration found that vaccination resulted in a modest decrease in both influenza symptoms and working days lost, without affecting transmission or influenza-related complications. In health care workers, a 2006 review found a net benefit. Evidence for an effect in adults over 65 years old is unclear. Systematic reviews examining both randomized controlled and case control studies found a lack of high-quality evidence. The group most vulnerable to non-pandemic flu, the elderly, benefits least from the vaccine.
There are multiple reasons behind this steep decline in vaccine efficacy, the most common of which are the declining immunological function and frailty associated with advanced age. There is a high-dose flu vaccine specifically formulated to provide a stronger immune response. Available evidence indicates that vaccinating the elderly with the high-dose vaccine leads to a stronger immune response against influenza than the regular-dose vaccine. A flu vaccine containing an adjuvant was approved by the U. November 2015, for use by adults aged 65 years of age and older.
The vaccine is marketed as Fluad in the U. Vaccinating health care workers who work with elderly people is recommended in many countries, with the goal of reducing influenza outbreaks in this vulnerable population. As well as protecting mother and child from the effects of an influenza infection, the immunization of pregnant women tends to increase their chances of experiencing a successful full-term pregnancy. The trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine is protective in pregnant women infected with HIV. While side effects of the flu vaccine may occur, they are usually minor. The flu vaccine can cause serious side effects, including an allergic reaction, but this is rare.
Flu vaccination may lead to side effects such as runny nose and sore throat, which can last for up to several days. The risk-benefit ratio, which is what vaccines and everything in medicine is about, is overwhelmingly in favor of vaccination. LAIV works by establishing infection in the nasal passages. However, a 2009 review concluded that there was insufficient evidence to recommend routine use of trivalent influenza vaccine during the first trimester of pregnancy.
In 2008, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization, the group that advises the Public Health Agency of Canada, recommended that everyone aged two to 64 years be encouraged to receive annual influenza vaccination, and that children between the age of six and 24 months, and their household contacts, should be considered a high priority for the flu vaccine. The European Center for Disease Prevention and Control recommends vaccinating the elderly as a priority, with a secondary priority people with chronic medical conditions and healthcare workers. The influenza vaccination strategy is generally that of protecting vulnerable people, rather than limiting influenza circulation or totally eliminating human influenza sickness. This is in contrast with the high herd immunity strategies for other Infectious diseases such as polio and measles. Children or adolescents on long-term aspirin treatment. A young woman shows off her flu shot after receiving vaccine at a local drug store. Vaccination is especially important for people at higher risk of serious influenza complications or people who live with or care for people at higher risk for serious complications.
In 2009, a new high-dose formulation of the standard influenza vaccine was approved. An added benefit expected from the vaccination of children is a reduction in the number of influenza cases among parents and other household members, and of possible spread to the general community. 2017 flu season, in the United States. Uptake of flu vaccination, both seasonally and during pandemics, is often low. Frontline healthcare workers are often recommended to get seasonal and any pandemic flu vaccination. In a 2010 survey of United States healthcare workers, 63.
11 season, an increase from 61. The main reason to vaccinate healthcare workers is to prevent staff from spreading flu to their patients and to reduce staff absence at a time of high service demand, but the reasons healthcare workers state for their decisions to accept or decline vaccination may more often be to do with perceived personal benefits. Flu vaccine is usually grown by vaccine manufacturers in fertilized chicken eggs. WHO recommended strains for the winter flu season. As of November 2007, both the conventional injection and the nasal spray are manufactured using chicken eggs. A DNA-based vaccination, which is hoped to be even faster to manufacture, is as of 2011 in clinical trials, determining safety and efficacy. On November 20, 2012, Novartis received FDA approval for the first cell-culture vaccine.
In an aggressive scenario of producing pandemic influenza vaccines by 2013, only 2. Vaccine research and development is ongoing to identify novel vaccine approaches that could produce much greater quantities of vaccine at a price that is affordable to the global population. VLP resemble viruses, but there is no need for inactivation, as they do not include viral coding elements, but merely present antigens in a similar manner to a virion. Influenza vaccines are produced in pathogen-free eggs that are 11 to 12 days old. The top of the egg is disinfected by wiping it with alcohol and then the egg is candled to identify a non-veinous area in the allantoic cavity where a small hole is poked to serve as a pressure release. After the 48 hour incubation period, the top of the egg is cracked and the 10 milliliters of allantoic fluid is removed, from which about 15 micrograms of the flu vaccine can be obtained. At this point, the viruses have been weakened or killed and the viral antigen is purified and placed inside vials, syringes, or nasal sprayers.
Each year, three strains are chosen for selection in that year’s flu vaccination by the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network. The chosen strains are the H1N1, H3N2, and Type-B strains thought most likely to cause significant human suffering in the coming season. The WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network was established in 1952. These NICs collect specimens in their country, perform primary virus isolation and preliminary antigenic characterization. Formal WHO recommendations were first issued in 1973.