This article is about the mountain range in South America. They form a continuous highland along the western edge of South El marmara en llamas pdf. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, which are separated by intermediate depressions.

The Andes are the world’s highest mountain range outside Asia. North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The etymology of the word Andes has been debated. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is often considered to be part of the Andes. The term cordillera comes from the Spanish word “cordel”, meaning “rope”. The Andean orogen has a series of bends or oroclines.

The formation of the modern Andes began with the events of the Triassic when Pangaea began to break up that resulted in developing several rifts. The development continued through the Jurassic Period. The regions immediately east of the Andes experience a series of changes resulting from the Andean orogeny. Parts of the Sunsás Orogen in Amazonian craton disappeared from the surface of earth being overridden by the Andes. The Andes range has many active volcanoes, which are distributed in four volcanic zones separated by areas of inactivity. The Andean volcanism is a result of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctic Plate underneath the South American Plate.

The belt is subdivided into four main volcanic zones that are separated from each other by volcanic gaps. The volcanoes of the belt are diverse in terms of activity style, products and morphology. The Andes Mountains host large ore and salt deposits and some of their eastern fold and thrust belt acts as traps for commercially exploitable amounts of hydrocarbons. The climate in the Andes varies greatly depending on latitude, altitude, and proximity to the sea. Temperature, atmospheric pressure and humidity decrease in higher elevations. The southern section is rainy and cool, the central section is dry.

The climate is known to change drastically in rather short distances. The Andes of Chile and Argentina can be divided in two climatic and glaciological zones: the Dry Andes and the Wet Andes. Since the Dry Andes extend from the latitudes of Atacama Desert to the area of Maule River, precipitation is more sporadic and there are strong temperature oscillations. Though precipitation increases with the height, there are semiarid conditions in the nearly 7000 m towering highest mountains of the Andes. The valley bottoms have no woods, just dwarf scrub. Plomo glacier and the Horcones glaciers do not even reach 10 km in length and have an only insignificant ice thickness.

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