Attar’s statue – Nishapur 02 – 2012-02-25. Information about Attar’s life is rare and scarce. He is mentioned by only two of his contemporaries, `Awfi and Tusi. According to Reinert: It seems that he was not well known as a poet in his own lifetime, except at his home din en 755 9 pdf, and his greatness as a mystic, a poet, and a master of narrative was not discovered until the 15th century.

Attar was probably the son of a prosperous chemist, receiving an excellent education in various fields. While his works say little else about his life, they tell us that he practiced the profession of pharmacy and personally attended to a very large number of customers. The people he helped in the pharmacy used to confide their troubles in `Attar and this affected him deeply. Attar’s initiation into Sufi practices is subject to much speculation.

Ayaz kneeling before Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. A miniature painting made in the year 1472, is used to illustrate the six poems by Attar of Nishapur. The thoughts depicted in `Attar’s works reflects the whole evolution of the Sufi movement. The starting point is the idea that the body-bound soul’s awaited release and return to its source in the other world can be experienced during the present life in mystic union attainable through inward purification. Judging from `Attar’s writings, he approached the available Aristotelian heritage with skepticism and dislike. Interestingly, he did not seem to want to reveal the secrets of nature. He also states, in the introduction of the Mukhtār-Nāma, that he destroyed the Jawāhir-Nāma’ and the Šarḥ al-Qalb with his own hand.

Although the contemporary sources confirm only `Attar’s authorship of the Dīwān and the Manṭiq-uṭ-Ṭayr, there are no grounds for doubting the authenticity of the Mukhtār-Nāma and Khusraw-Nāma and their prefaces. Led by the hoopoe, the birds of the world set forth in search of their king, Simurgh. Their quest takes them through seven valleys in the first of which a hundred difficulties assail them. They undergo many trials as they try to free themselves of what is precious to them and change their state. The fourth valley is introduced as the valley of detachment, i. The birds begin to feel that they have become part of a universe that is detached from their physical recognizable reality. In their new world, the planets are as minute as sparks of dust and elephants are not distinguishable from ants.

It is not until they enter the fifth valley that they realize that unity and multiplicity are the same. The seventh valley is the valley of deprivation, forgetfulness, dumbness, deafness, and death. The present and future lives of the thirty successful birds become shadows chased by the celestial Sun. And themselves, lost in the Sea of His existence, are the Simurgh. Collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Folio from an illustrated manuscript dated c. Attar’s only known prose work which he worked on throughout much of his life and which was available publicly before his death, is a biography of Muslim saints and mystics.

In what is considered the most compelling entry in this book, `Attar relates the story of the execution of Mansur al-Hallaj, the mystic who had uttered the words “I am the Truth” in a state of ecstatic contemplation. In terms of form and content, it has some similarities with Bird Parliament. The story is about a king who is confronted with the materialistic and worldly demands of his six sons. The King tries to show the temporary and senseless desires of his six sons by retelling them a large number of spiritual stories. A miniature painting by Bihzad illustrating the funeral of the elderly Attar of Nishapur after he was held captive and killed by a Mongol invader. His Qasidas expound upon mystical and ethical themes and moral precepts.

Attar is one of the most famous mystic poets of Iran. His works were the inspiration of Rumi and many other mystic poets. Attar, along with Sanai were two of the greatest influences on Rumi in his Sufi views. Attar has roamed through the seven cities of love while we have barely turned down the first street. Attar was a pen-name which he took for his occupation. Several musical artists have albums or songs which share the name of his most famous work, Conference of the Birds, as well as the themes of enlightenment contained therein.

Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges, used in one of his short stories, The Approach to Al-Mu’tasim, a summary of The Conference of the Birds as a reference. Farīd al-Dīn ʿAṭṭār, in Encyclopædia Britannica, online edition – accessed December 2012. Excerpt: “ATTAR, FARID AL-DIN MUHAMMAD B. Arberry, “Sufism: An Account of the Mystics “, Courier Dover Publications, Nov 9, 2001.

130: “Attar has traversed the seven cities of Love, We are still at the turn of one street! Meier, “Der Geistmensch bei dem persischen Dichter `Attar”, Eranos-Jahrbuch 13, 1945, pp. Browne, A Literary History of Persia from the Earliest Times Until Firdawsi, 543 pp. Annemarie Schimmel, Deciphering the Signs of God, 302 pp. Richard Moore and Peter Sheldon, p. Jan Rypka, History of Iranian Literature. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Attar.

Bird Parliament Fitzgerald translation Manṭiq-uṭ-Ṭayr, at archive. Attar in Encyclopedia Iranica by B. A biography by Professor Iraj Bashiri, University of Minnesota. A Translation of 50 poems with the Persian on the facing page.

Contemporary Persian and Classical Persian are the same language, but writers since 1900 are classified as contemporary. At one time, Persian was a common cultural language of much of the non-Arabic Islamic world. This page was last edited on 14 March 2018, at 17:55. The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China.

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