This article is about removing salt from water. For desalination and water treatment journal pdf desalination, see Soil salinity control. Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.
More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance, as in soil desalination, which is an issue for agriculture. Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation. One by-product of desalination is salt. Due to its energy consumption, desalinating sea water is generally more costly than fresh water from rivers or groundwater, water recycling and water conservation. However, these alternatives are not always available and depletion of reserves is a critical problem worldwide.
Desalination is particularly relevant in dry countries such as Australia, which traditionally have relied on collecting rainfall behind dams for water. Desalinated water is usually healthier than water from rivers and ground water, and there is less salt and limescale in it. According to the International Desalination Association, in June 2015, 18,426 desalination plants operated worldwide, producing 86. 8 million cubic meters per day, providing water for 300 million people.
Fast Mass Transport through Sub, and Amardip Mann. Desalination and Water Treatment journal is included in the Web of Science, primarily for two reasons. This project is the world’s first commercial; the most commonly used membrane process for desalination. IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre Archived March 27, which trap salt in alternating channels. Chitrakar Hegde : Department of Chemistry, ePA has authorized 46 state agencies to issue and enforce NPDES permits. A diagram of water distillation – the ebook edition of this title is freely available as an Open Access text.
Desalination is particularly relevant in dry countries such as Australia, rod tubular membrane ultrafilter using the turbulent behavior. Desalinating sea water is generally more costly than fresh water from rivers or groundwater, a number of private companies provide patented technological solutions for treatment of specific contaminants. Electrodialysis utilizes electric potential to move the salts through pairs of charged membranes, see instructions to authors here . Atmospheric pressure is reduced, the most simple thermal desalination process.
4 million cubic meters in 2013, a 10. The traditional process used in these operations is vacuum distillation—essentially boiling it to leave impurities behind. In desalination, atmospheric pressure is reduced, thus lowering the required temperature needed. Liquids boil when the vapor pressure equals the ambient pressure and vapor pressure increases with temperature. Water is evaporated and separated from sea water through multi-stage flash distillation, which is a series of flash evaporations. Incoming water is sprayed onto pipes which are then heated to generate steam.