Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. This article criminology and victimology pdf section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic. This article possibly contains original research.

This article’s factual accuracy is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. The feminist school of criminology is a school of criminology developed in the late 1960s and into the 1970s as a reaction to the perceived general disregard and discrimination of women in the traditional study of crime. The feminist school of criminology was closely associated with the emergence of the Second Wave Feminism and it speaks with multiple viewpoints developed from different feminist writers. The feminist school emphasises that most violent crime is caused by aggressive forms of masculinity and that crime is a result of inequalities within society. This article is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay that states a Wikipedia editor’s personal feelings about a topic.

Criminology is the study of crime and criminal justice, and it covers a multitude of topics, but according to those of the feminist school of criminology the principal theories of criminality have been developed from male subjects, have been validated on male subjects, and focus on male victimization. These roles are a powerful form of social control maintained through informal and formal mechanisms. In any event, women are more afraid to go out of the home after dark because they fear aggressive male behaviour. Further, those of the feminist school of criminology claim that men are the dominant group and the standard of normality and have maintained inequality through control of the definition of deviance and of the institutions of social control. Feminists waves may have brought greater liberation to women, but have not changed their pattern of crime. Feminist criminology is conflict based calling for the downgrading of many dominant crime theories, as they were constructed without consideration for feminist viewpoints.

Critique has been the essential tool for the production of feminist theory. The most investigated “difference” between the sexes was biological. This section does not cite any sources. Strain theories are criticised by feminists as betraying a double standard. When male offenders commit a crime under certain conditions of opportunity blockage, their commission of crime is somehow seen as a “normal” or functional response. When women commit crime, Strain Theory views it as some sort of “weakness”.

1970s increased economic opportunities for women and allowed women to be as crime-prone as men. A debate in the recent criminology literature has focused on the handling of female offenders as they are processed through the criminal justice system. Prior history of offending, and seriousness of offence, are fundamental factors in determining severity of sentence, for any offender. The smallest increases in arrests coincided with periods of the greatest increase in economic activity with the most common offense being that of shop lifting.

Criminology texts usually do not cover the broad possibilities that may account for female criminality. A criticism of criminological explanations of female crime is its insistence on presuming the nature of females and their predisposition away from crime. Three out of four women will be victims of violent crimes during their lives. Violence is the leading cause of injuries to women aged 15 to 44.

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