MCAT Review and MCAT Prep Online – mcat-review. Abnormal psychology biological perspective in psychology pdf the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder. The science of abnormal psychology studies two types of behaviors: adaptive and maladaptive behaviors.
Throughout time, societies have proposed several explanations of abnormal behavior within human beings. Beginning in some hunter-gatherer societies, animists have believed that people demonstrating abnormal behavior are possessed by malevolent spirits. A more formalized response to spiritual beliefs about abnormality is the practice of exorcism. Performed by religious authorities, exorcism is thought of as another way to release evil spirits who cause pathological behavior within the person. In some instances, individuals exhibiting unusual thoughts or behaviors have been exiled from society or worse. The act of placing mentally ill individuals in a separate facility known as an asylum dates to 1547, when King Henry VIII of England established the St.
Mary of Bethlehem asylum in London. In the late 18th century the idea of humanitarian treatment for the patients gained much favor due to the work of Philippe Pinel in France. He pushed for the idea that the patients should be treated with kindness and not the cruelty inflicted on them as if they were animals or criminals. His experimental ideas such as removing the chains from the patients were met with reluctance.
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Institutionalization would continue to improve throughout the 19th and 20th century due to work of many humanitarians such as Dorethea Dix, and the mental hygiene movement which promoted the physical well-being of the mental patients. By 1939 there were over 400,000 patients in state mental hospitals in the USA. Hospital stays were normally quite long for the patients, with some individuals being treated for many years. The book called attention to the conditions which mental patients faced and helped to spark concern in the general public to create more humane mental health care in these overcrowded hospitals. In this same year the National Institute of Mental Health was also created which provided support for the training of hospital employees and research into the conditions which afflicted the patients.
During this period the Hill-Burton Acts was also passed which was a program that funded mental health hospitals. The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. In the late twentieth century however, the public view on the mentally ill was no longer in such a positive light. A large number of mental hospitals ended up closing down due to lack of funding and overpopulation. In England for example only 14 of the 130 psychiatric institutions that had been created in the early 20th century remained open at the start of the 21st century.
This trend was not only in the England and the United States but worldwide with countries like Australia feeling the pain of too many mentally ill patients and not enough treatment facilities. Recent studies have found that the prevalence of mental illness has not decreased significantly in the past 10 years, and has in fact increased in frequency regarding specific conditions such as anxiety and mood disorders. This led to a large number of the patients being released while not being fully cured of the disorder they were hospitalized for. This became known as the phenomenon of deinstitutionalization. This movement had noble goals of treating the individuals outside of the isolated mental hospital by placing them into communities and support systems. People have tried to explain and control abnormal behavior for thousands of years. In the first supernatural tradition, also called the demonological method, abnormal behaviors are attributed to agents outside human bodies.
This tradition is still alive today. Some people, especially in the developing countries and some followers of religious sects in the developed countries, continue to believe that supernatural powers influence human behaviors. In the biological tradition, psychological disorders are attributed to biological causes and in the psychological tradition, disorders are attributed to faulty psychological development and to social context. The Greek physician Hippocrates, who is considered to be the father of Western medicine, played a major role in the biological tradition. Hippocrates and his associates wrote the Hippocratic Corpus between 450 and 350 BC, in which they suggested that abnormal behaviors can be treated like any other disease. These ideas of Hippocrates and his associates were later adopted by Galen, the Roman physician.
Galen extended these ideas and developed a strong and influential school of thought within the biological tradition that extended well into the 18th century. Medical: Kendra Cherry states: “The medical approach to abnormal psychology focuses on the biological causes on mental illness. This perspective emphasizes understanding the underlying cause of disorders, which might include genetic inheritance, related physical disorders, infections and chemical imbalances. Medical treatments are often pharmacological in nature, although medication is often used in conjunction with some other type of psychotherapy. According to Sigmund Freud’s structural model, the Id, Ego and Superego are three theoretical constructs that defines the way an individual interacts with the external world as well as responding to internal forces.
Irrational beliefs that are driven by unconscious fears, can result in abnormal behavior. Rational emotive therapy helps to drive irrational and maladaptive beliefs out of one’s mind. The term sociocultural refers to the various circles of influence on the individual ranging from close friends and family to the institutions and policies of a country or the world as a whole. Discriminations, whether based on social class, income, race, and ethnicity, or gender, can influence the development of abnormal behaviour. The number of different theoretical perspectives in the field of psychological abnormality has made it difficult to properly explain psychopathology. A precipitating cause is an immediate trigger that instigates a person’s action or behavior.
IQ of 35 could be classified as abnormal, as the population average is 100. However, this does not specify a particular mental illness. This approach has led to the development of radical biological treatments, e. This section needs additional citations for verification. The standard abnormal psychology and psychiatry reference book in North America is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association. The current version of the book is known as DSM-5. The DSM-5 identifies three key elements that must be present to constitute a mental disorder.
Symptoms that involve disturbances in behavior, thoughts, or emotions. Symptoms associated with personal distress or impairment. The diagnostic process uses five dimensions, each of which is identified as an “axis”, to ascertain symptoms and overall functioning of the individual. It is important to note that the DSM-5 no longer uses this axis system. Clinical disorders, which would include major mental and learning disorders. These disorders make up what is generally acknowledged as a disorder including major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, and substance dependence. To be given a diagnosis for a disorder in this axis the patient must meet the criteria for the particular disorder which is presented in the DSM in that particular disorders section.