The ankle, or the talocrural region, is the region where the foot and the leg meet. As a region, the ankle is found at the anatomy of ankle joint pdf of the leg and the foot. The talocrural joint is the only mortise and tenon joint in the human body,. The bony architecture of the ankle consists of three bones: the tibia, the fibula, and the talus.

Because the motion of the subtalar joint provides a significant contribution to positioning the foot, some authors will describe it as the lower ankle joint, and call the talocrural joint the upper ankle joint. The mortise is a rectangular socket. The anterior and posterior talofibular ligaments support the lateral side of the joint from the lateral malleolus of the fibula to the dorsal and ventral ends of the talus. The calcaneofibular ligament is attached at the lateral malleolus and to the lateral surface of the calcaneus. Though it does not span the ankle joint itself, the syndesmotic ligament makes an important contribution to the stability of the ankle. This ligament spans the syndesmosis, i.

The bony architecture of the ankle joint is most stable in dorsiflexion. Thus, a sprained ankle is more likely to occur when the ankle is plantar-flexed, as ligamentous support is more important in this position. A number of tendons pass through the ankle region. The inferior extensor retinaculum of foot is a Y-shaped structure. Its lateral attachment is on the calcaneus, and the band is travels towards the anterior tibia where it is attaches and blends with the superior extensor retinaculum. Muscle spindles are thought to be the main type of mechanoreceptor responsible for proprioceptive attributes from the ankle. It was hypothesized that muscle spindle feedback from the ankle dorsiflexors played the most substantial role in proprioception relative to other muscular receptors that cross at the ankle joint.

However, due to the multi-planar range of motion at the ankle joint there is not one group of muscles that is responsible for this. This helps to explain the relationship between the ankle and balance. In 2011, a relationship between proprioception of the ankle and balance performance was seen in the CNS. This was done by using a fMRI machine in order to see the changes in brain activity when the receptors of the ankle are stimulated. This implicates the ankle directly with the ability to balance.

Further research is needed in order to see to what extent does the ankle affect balance. Historically, the role of the ankle in locomotion has been discussed by Aristotle and Leonardo da Vinci. Of all major joints, the ankle is the most commonly injured. It is exceedingly rare for the ankle joint to dislocate in the presence of ligamentous injury alone. The talus is most commonly fractured by two methods. The first is hyperdorsiflexion, where the neck of the talus is forced against the tibia and fractures. The second is jumping from a height – the body is fractured as the talus transmits the force from the foot to the lower limb bones.

In the setting of an ankle fracture the talus can become unstable and subluxate or dislocate. The initial evaluation of suspected ankle pathology is usually by radiograph, with the three major anatomic landmarks for ligamentous injury. The first is the tibiofibular clear space, the horizontal distance from the lateral border of the posterior tibial malleolus to the medial border of the fibula, with greater than 5 mm being abnormal. It has been suggested that dexterous control of toes has been lost in favour of a more precise voluntary control of the ankle joint. Physical Therapies in Sport and Exercise. Gray’s Anatomy E-Book: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. Kinesiology – E-Book: The Skeletal System and Muscle Function.

Joint space width of the tibiotalar joint in the healthy foot”. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Proprioception of the ankle and knee”. Proprioceptive population coding of limb position in humans”. Brain Activity during Ankle Proprioceptive Stimulation Predicts Balance Performance in Young and Older Adults”. A unified perspective on ankle push-off in human walking”.

A blood test can be used to diagnose gout, book: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. But the mainstay of treatment for gout involves powerful oral anti, what will the Foot Doctor do for Gout in the Big Toe Joint? Once the uric acid crystals have formed within the big toe joint, the pain will be gone in a few hours to a couple of days. The horizontal distance from the lateral border of the posterior tibial malleolus to the medial border of the fibula – joint space width of the tibiotalar joint in the healthy foot”. With the correct treatment, swelling and extreme tenderness.

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